In general, agreements such as the TPP and CETA are seen as 21st century agreements, not only because they address traditional issues such as tariff reductions and other economic dimensions dealt with in NAFTA, but also on current issues such as trade facilitation, the environment, aid to developing countries and measures that help small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) , the opportunities they create to make full use of them. Tags: Trade Agreements, Deep Integration, Production Distribution So who`s right? Part of the problem is that no one is completely clear about the impact of regulatory cooperation. Chase says regulatory cooperation means “regulators talking to each other.” However, some proposals put forward by the EU Trade Committee and the USTR point to “convergence,” “mutual recognition” and “harmonization” of the rules. An NGO spokesperson believes that even “regulatory cooperation” is not a neutral term. Vito Buonsante is a political advisor to the environmental group ClientEarth, which is highly critical of T-TIP. It asks: “Will regulators working together not try to reach a common position?” To the extent that atRAs go beyond WTO commitments and remain open to further participation by countries committed to their standards, they can complement the multilateral trading system. Over the years, the OECD has examined the relationship between regional trade agreements and the multilateral trading system, including specific policy areas addressed by ATRs, such as agricultural addressing, technical regulations, compliance standards and procedures, investment rules on international technology transfer, integration of environmental considerations and approaches to market opening in the digital age – to name a few. In short, the agreements of the 21st century are not so much a revolution as an evolution of the approach favoured by the countries negotiating such agreements. Of course, trade agreements often do not lead directly to military action. Indeed, over the past decade, regional bilateral trade agreements (ATRs) have never been more welcome and have multiplied; Between 2005 and 2014, more than twice as many agreements were reached between the World Trade Organization (WTO) as in the first ten years after the creation of the WTO from 1995 to 2005.
In total, about 400 people emerge, what one expert calls a “spaghetti shell” of trade relations between countries around the world.